Relativists declare that "there are no absolute truths. Montaigne concludes that the best way to avoid the trap of thinking that the unfamiliar equals the inadequate is to implement careful reasoning for, or against, a practice rather than relying on prejudice Botton, A.
One final example that he uses to support his analysis is the difference between cultures that refuse to eat cows and those who do not. So it proves nothing. The strategy used by cultural relativists is to argue from facts about the differences between cultural outlooks to a conclusion about the status of morality.
Rachels argues that cultural relativism would continue to support the notion that, because there is a difference of a opinion, there cannot be one truly correct belief.
How could a group survive that did not value its young? Consider a culture in which people believe it is wrong to eat cows. Rachels introduces a counterargument to the Cultural Difference Argument. Hitler hated the Jewish people for their beliefs, appearance and many other reasons and managed to execute a scheme to annihilate them before they tainted his dreams of an Aryan race.
Rather than having a strict Cultural relativism rachels essay of universal rules that govern the morality of different cultures, Cultural relativism rachels essay argues that many cultures are at the complete opposite ends of the spectrum when it comes to specific areas of culture and lifestyle.
The people there believe that everyone else is using black magic to poison them. This may even be a poor culture, in which there is not enough food; still, the cows are not to be touched.
This, of course, is one of the main points stressed by Cultural Relativism. Such a society would appear to have values very different from our own. The Eskimos are a nomadic tribe whose males are often killed during hunting or from the cold.
In fact, it may be argued that even those cultures that share such a belief do not have any reason to. The prohibition of murder, then, is a necessary feature of all societies. In such a "society," no one could feel secure.
So there seemed to be, in this society, remarkably little respect for life. As a result, he makes assumptions on the lack of differences among cultures that should not be made. Thus there appears to be a great difference in the values of our two cultures.
He identified a logical fallacy in the argument of Cultural Relativism and discussed briefly the limitations of cultural relativism.
An issue that now affects cultural relativism is while before cultures did not intermingle, they now live side by side, as neighbours and good friends, or worst enemies. This sounds horrible, and our initial reaction may be one of disgust, but rarely do we stop and ask why the Eskimos kill their daughters.
According to Cultural Relativism, then, the idea of social reform makes sense only in this limited way. His latter example about Earth is an argument over scientific fact, while his former two disposal of the dead and infanticide are arguments over moral code.
There are many cases where this tolerance is a much needed breath of fresh view points, but cultural relativism also dictates that we must be tolerant of all cultural practices, not just the ones we like.
And when we do hear of such things, we tend immediately to categorize those other peoples as "backward" or "primitive. No, it does not follow; for it could be that the practice was objectively right or wrong and that one or the other of them was simply mistaken. It all begs the question; why can we not all just get along?
We may call this the Cultural Differences Argument. It is not outside of them, of independent origin, and brought to test them. People affected by such barbaric practices do not seem to improve the quality of their lives nor their happiness.
We cannot conclude, then, merely because customs differ, that there is a disagreement about values. While each culturally-specific ritual may be difficult to understand for other cultures, the culture in which it is followed sees it as indispensable and imperative for survival. If you think his arguments are good, then provide arguments and examples that show he is right.
Abu Rizvi December 6, HCOL A Cultural and ethical relativism are two widespread theories that are used to explain the differences among cultures and their ethics and morals. In fact, there is disagreement even between his examples that show his assumptions are incorrect: However, if you test this position under general rules of logic, you soon discover that relativism is illogical and self-defeating.
Since the norms are bound in Polish society, invasion and manslaughter are not part of their norms.1 THE CHALLENGE OF CULTURAL RELATIVISM by JAMES RACHELS “Morality differs in every society, and is a convenient term for socially approved habits.”.
Mar 30, · Rachels lists reasons as to why strictly observing Cultural Relativism can be dangerous. At this point, we have read two extremist opinions and feel no closure to his argument.
He concludes his essay by acknowledging the similarities between all.
Essay on Meta-Ethical Cultural Relativism - Meta-Ethical Cultural Relativism The thesis of meta-ethical cultural relativism is the philosophical viewpoint that there are no absolute moral truths, only truths relative to the cultural context in which they exist.
“People believe in cultural relativism because when your dealing with morality, there is no objective truth. Right and wrong are only matters of opinion, and opinions vary from culture to culture” (Rachels ). In the text “The Challenge of Cultural Relativism,” James Rachels breaks down and discusses the theory of Cultural Relativism by presenting the pros and cons of this theory.
He exposes some of the shortcomings of the theory arguing that some of the claims are wrong and contradictory. Mar 30, · James Rachels begins his piece The Challenge of Cultural Relativism by describing certain practices that are custom in some cultures and illegal in agronumericus.com cites the Callatian practice of eating the dead as an accepted ritual that may seem immoral in other societies.Download