The first treatment is to wash her with warm water; if this does not work, cold water or cooled boiled laurel or myrtle water should be put on the head, and the head anointed with rose oil.
Clearly, not all diseases of the womb are helped by sneezing and, since Hippocrates cannot be wrong, Galen concludes that the passage must refer to hysterike pnix. One of the reasons why neither hysteria nor hysterike pnix is a Hippocratic category is simply that Hippocratic gynecology does not work by fitting collections of symptoms into preexisting categories.
The pattern is usually that fragrant substances are applied to the vulva, in order to attract the womb back, while foul-smelling substances are placed under the nostrils to drive the womb away from the upper parts of the body.
In various Hippocratic texts the term hysteria is applied to a large variety of female complaints. The first description of interest is the second chapter of Diseases of Women book 1 L 8. Then burn firewood, until you have made the hole red-hot.
If it cools, throw on red-hot charcoal, taking care that the fumigation is not too fiery. The earth is not flat, although once "everyone knew" that it was. The writer of this chapter goes on to say that a woman's flesh is softer and of a looser texture than that of a man, and draws an analogy between female flesh and sheepskin, and between male flesh and a rug.
Instead, they start by naming the location to which the womb has moved without saying why it has traveled therethen give a short list of "signs," and finally outline the treatment. As only one recent writer on hysteria, E.
A man does more strenuous and tiring work, which dries out any excess moisture he may have accumulated; women live sedentary lives, leaving menstruation as the only way of purging them of the excess fluid building up in their bodies.
As is usual in these texts, a range of different substances is given, perhaps in order to aid the doctor in catering for a range of abilities to pay, or to allow for seasonal difficulties in obtaining the substances.
One also searches for it in vain in the later gynecological writers of antiquity, such as Soranus and Aretaeus of Cappadocia, in whose work there does exist a condition thought to originate in the womb and to cause symptoms of suffocation, tooth grinding, loss of voice, and so on, but which is called not hysteria but hysterike pnix"suffocation caused by the womb.
The fumigation itself inflates the womb, makes it more upright and opens it. He also gives brief summaries of Diseases of Women book 2, chapters In such a woman, the "dry and light" womb may suddenly "turn around" and move up in search of moisture.
Pliny himself gives the case of a woman who lay as if dead for seven days with "conversio vulvae," turning of the womb. Turning this last point on its head, the Hippocratic writers thus have the notion of a disease as something unitary which, due not only to the differences between patients in age, sex, temperament, and coloring, but also to variations in climate and season, may nevertheless manifest itself in a variety of ways.
One group accepts that hysteria is "a valid, independent syndrome" and, in applying this label, makes use of the Perley-Guze criteria, which list over fifty symptoms in ten areas; exhibiting twenty-five symptoms in nine out of ten areas qualifies as hysteria, in the absence of any other diagnosis.
Is it a disease at all? Before Zeus sent the first woman and mother of the "race," Pandora, as one stage in the sequence of gift and counter-gift between gods and men, men lived like the gods. Gourevitch traces the disappearance of "the hysterical virgin from medical literature" between the Hippocratics and the medicine of the Roman Empire; she attributes this disappearance to institutional change since, if the age at first marriage falls even further, fewer girls will remain to become hysterical.Nov 09, · My prompt is "Write a carefully reasoned, persuasive essay that defends, challenges, or qualifies this assertion.
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